Advertisements in Magazines Geared for the Hispanic-American Audience

Overview:
Research Topic: Print advertisements in magazines geared for the Hispanic-American
audience.

Hypothesis 1: Women will be represented more often than men in print advertising in People
En Espanol.

Hypothesis 2: The number of print advertisements without people will far outweigh the
number of print advertisements with people in People En Espanol.

Hypothesis 3: In advertisements with more than two people shown, the likelihood of an “All-
Races-Together Ad” will be extremely high.

Hypothesis 4: The proportion of Spanish to English will remain relatively constant
throughout the year of publication.

Hypothesis 5: When English is used in large font it will be clarified with an increased number
of Spanish medium and small font text.

Hypothesis 6: The amount of pharmaceutical advertisements will increase throughout the
year.

Literature Review

When beginning this project I was surprised at the lack of research done in regards to Spanish advertising. While there has been a lot of research in Spanish regarding advertising, little attention has been paid to American magazines geared at the ever-growing Hispanic audience here in the United States. Previous studies have focused on the portrayal of minorities in magazine advertisements, changing of stereotyping through advertisements, and the perpetuation of racial stereotyping in magazine advertisements.

Ronald Humphrey and Howard Schuman looked at minority representation in print in their article “The Portrayal of Black in Magazine Advertisements: 1950 – 1982.” The way the study was set-up allows the reader to “increase knowledge in two main ways” (551). By “determining the image of black that advertisements present to Americans,” and examining advertisements as “one type of barometer of the society” this article helps to look at a part of history through print advertising (551). Humphrey and Schuman also consider the “models that may guide advertisers in their decisions as to when and how to include blacks in advertisements” (551).

This can easily be shifted to this study to contemplate why some companies merely translate advertisements and continue to use blatantly pale-skinned European models, while others develop advertising campaigns devoted to the Hispanic market. Especially important to consider is in a publication geared specifically for Latinos, why would an advertiser not shift marketing schemes? One issue that constantly creeps up in all current media debates is finances. A company must decide whether it is fiscally responsible to re-shoot photographs or whether the advertisements themselves will be effective enough when merely placed in a Hispanic magazine, such as People En Espanol.

Coding in Humphrey and Schuman’s article examined many of the same variables, including number of people, sex of those represented, and sponsorship of the advertising (561). Further research could be developed that examines social status of those pictured, as Humphrey and Schuman also examined, but time restraints do not permit that at this time. Humphrey and Schuman were able to examine several magazines, including Ladies’ Home Journal and Time. In the Procedure section of this study the decision to solely use People En Espanol will be justified.

Hypothesis 1: Women will be represented more often than men in print advertising in People En Espanol.

Hypothesis 2: Print advertisements will be more likely to not have people in them in People En Espanol.

Another study dealing with minorities in print advertising was done by Keith K. Cox. “Changes in Stereotyping of Negroes and Whites in Magazine Advertisements” examines stereotypes in popular culture, so embedded they are displayed in print media. This study was actually a repetition of an earlier study in 1953 by Shuey, King and Griffith, in which magazines were examined to determine the presence of stereotypical images. While the coding in this article was helpful, the results were necessary to ensure the ability of new research. Results show the increase of minority representation in print media advertising, as well as a rise in the number of advertisements geared towards minority audiences. Current research would not be easily validated without research like Cox’s.

J. David Colfax and Susan Frankel Sternberg’s “The Perpetuation of Racial Stereotypes: Blacks in Mass Circulation Magazine Advertisements,” looks at advertisements in four mass circulation magazines between 1965 and 1970, and “suggests that, in a variety of subtle ways, they are contributing to the perpetuation of racial stereotypes rather than their eradication” (8). When examining advertisements in this study, one is ever-mindful of images of chili peppers, piÃ?±atas, tacos, and sombreros. Difficult to pinpoint, however, is the use of culturally significant images versus their stereotypical use. In this article the different ways blacks are depicted in mass magazine advertisements, “(1) the proportion of the total number of advertising pages depicting blacks, (2) the proportion of populated advertisements depicting blacks, and (3) the proportion of the total number of persons appearing in advertisements who are black” (9). Unfortunately, this procedure is not possible to repeat in this study because Hispanics vary in skin color depending on heritage. Many people are not able to visually identify Hispanics, as they range from lighter-skinned Spanish to dark skinned Dominicans. The article did examine many specific examples of multi-racial advertisements, including the “All-Races-Together Ad” (13). This idea is very popular today, especially for companies on a budget, as they can take a promotional photograph and use it in many minority-specific magazines without having to re-shoot.

Hypothesis 3: In advertisements with more than two people shown, the likelihood of an “All-Races-Together Ad” will be extremely high.

Although finding articles referencing the use of English in Spanish print advertising proved to be extremely difficult, an article entitled, “Mixing English in French Advertising” can be easily applied. The conclusion of the article focuses on the use of English as an “attention-getting device,” where-by drawing readers in to a page (375). Martin also examines the ratio of French to English words, and devised a way of measuring the coded research.

Hypothesis 4: The proportion of Spanish to English will remain relatively constant throughout the year of publication.

Hypothesis 5: When English is used in large font it will be clarified with an increased number of Spanish medium and small font text.

Although previous research is difficult to come by, current research surrounding the Hispanic market is on the rise. In “Print Sees Hope in the Hispanic Market,” Wentz examines the semiannual conference of the Association of Hispanic Advertising Agencies, which took place earlier this year. “The only segment in the American newspaper industry that’s growing is in Spanish,” said JosÃ?© Ignacio Lozano, Vice Chairman of ImpreMedia (78). He continues stating, “Hispanic print is probably the last great frontier for opportunity in the Hispanic media market” (78). Although Lozano is discussing newspaper, the importance of print media to the Hispanic market cannot be denied. According to Latino Print Network, Hispanic newspaper revenue rose to “$854 million last year, from $785 million in 2002 and $596 million in 2000” (79). The article also focuses on the impact of pharmaceutical advertising on the Hispanic market. While many people may believe Hispanics are “more likely to self-medicate” or “use home remedies,” in fact, “63% of Hispanic respondents said they have used prescription drugs in the telephone survey of 600 Hispanics and 600 non-Hispanics conducted by Cultural Access Group and the Burke Institute” (78, 79). According to this article, Hispanics appear “more receptive to pharmaceutical ads than an Angle audience,” with 32% of Hispanic respondents agreeing that “TV ads for prescription drugs are trustworthy, compared to only 11% of non-Hispanics” (78). Can pharmaceutical companies translate the same trust to magazine advertisements?

Hypothesis 6: The amount of pharmaceutical advertisements will increase throughout the year.

In a final effort to prove the necessity of this study, according to a survey by the Pew Hispanic Center, the “majority of Latinos get their news either from English-language media or switch between Spanish and English-language outlets” (Extra!, 10). According to the same study 24% of Hispanics get all their news in Spanish, and 44% get their news from media in both languages. With 68% of Hispanics looking for Spanish-language media, a better understanding of the use of advertising for this ever-increasing Hispanic market.

Procedure:

In order to test the hypotheses of this study, it is important to identify a current, American printed magazine geared specifically at the Hispanic-American market. People En Espanol is the best choice, as its circulation is directed to a wide variety of people in many areas of the United States and abroad. Contrary to its title, it is not a translation of the popular magazine, People. Instead, it is a completely separate entity with unique articles, advertising, and layouts. People En Espanol also covers topics of interest to a Latino audience, and focuses on Hispanic and Hispanic-American entertainers and celebrities. On Amazon.com, it received five out of five stars. Reviewers left comments such as, “not the typical fluff of this magazine’s English counterpart” (October 23, 2004), and “easy to read, entertaining, and yet informative all in one” (April 9, 2003). Reviewers are careful to point out, “At first glance once may think that it’s the Spanish version of the weekly People magazine in English, but believe me the only element in common is the title” (April 9, 2003). Echoing similar beliefs, “better than the original!” can also be read multiple times (October 23, 2004; November 14, 2002). People En Espanol maintains a high level of respect, as reviewers complimented its superiority in quality of Spanish (April 9, 2003). People en Espanol is a “magazine ALL Latinos can be proud of” and offers a “solid editorials mix of current events, celebrities, trends, fashion and nostalgia” (June 20, 2002). Perhaps justifying the use of this publication can be summed up in a review from a reader in Yonkers, NY, who writes it is “relevant to the Latino audience,” and it does not matter if the “reader is Mexican, Cuban, Puerto Rican, South American or Domician. That alone makes it very special. In a culture where each subgroup seems self-isolated, this magazine works hard to focus on the ties that bind our communities rather than the ones that seem to drive us apart.”

Random selection of four issues from the 2004 publication year will be chosen one from each of the four quarters: January – March, April – June, July – September, and October – December. Double issues were eliminated from the pool in an attempt to keep the page numbers relatively constant to help control for total amount of print ads. Unfortunately, even with this elimination, pages ranged from 104 to 206 in all eligible issues. In order to control for length, only the first 100 pages of each magazine will be coded. If a double page spread begins on page 100, page 100 and 101 will be coded. To further justify only selecting the first 100 pages, a trial was done, and 84% of all full-page and double-page advertisements were found in the first 100 pages of October 2004’s issue. Only full page and double-page advertisements were examined and coded for this study, and text-only pages of medical information advertisements were excluded from the study.

Advertisements were coded, and the following information was taken:

�· company (examples: Maybelline, Clinique, Ford)
�· page number
�· number or pages in advertisement
�· number of people shown
�· number of women / girls
�· number of men / boys
�· number of large Spanish words (36 point font or larger)
�· number of large English words (36 point font or larger)
Ã?· number of medium Spanish words (20 point – 35 point font)
Ã?· number of medium English words (20 point – 35 point font)
Ã?· number of small Spanish words (12 point – 19 point font)
Ã?· number of small English words (12 point – 19 point font)

For clarification, font sizes are as follows:

Grande – Large
Mediano – Medium
Pequeno – Small
Print smaller than 12 point will not be examined during the course of this study.

The four issues selected for this study were:

Quarter 1: Febrero – February 2004
Headline: Los Mejores y Peores Peinados
Total pages: 120

Quarter 2: Junio – June 2004
Headline: Los 50 M�¡s Bellos
Total pages: 206

Quarter 3: Julio – July 2004
Headline: La Vida Real de Walter Mercado
Total pages: 128

Quarter 4: Octubre – October 2004
Headline: Exclusiva – Alejandro: Su Mejor Momento
Total pages: 174

All data was collected using Microsoft Excell for quantitative analysis. All statistical analysis was performed by Excell and further qualitative conclusions were drawn from data only after statistical analysis to avoid partiality. Quantitative analysis will be supplemented by qualitative research and analysis of the advertisements themselves.

Analyses:

Hypothesis 1: Women will be represented more often than men in print advertising in
People En Espanol.

Hypothesis 2: The number of print advertisements without people will far outweigh the
number of print advertisements with people in People En Espanol.

Hypothesis 3: In advertisements with more than two people shown, the likelihood of an “All-
Races-Together Ad” will be extremely high.

Hypothesis 4: The proportion of Spanish to English will remain relatively constant
throughout the year of publication.

Hypothesis 5: When English is used in large font it will be clarified with an increased number
of Spanish medium and small font text.

Hypothesis 6: The amount of pharmaceutical advertisements will increase throughout the
year.

Quantitative Analysis:

February 2004
H1: Average number of people 1.76; average number of women 1.31; average
number of men .45
Hypothesis supported.
H2: Number of advertisements with people 28; number without = 7
Hypothesis NOT supported.
H3: 5 ads with > 2 people; three were “all-races-together”
Hypothesis supported.
H4: Large print – .3.58 : 1.18 (3.034)
Medium print – 2.58 : 1.30 (1.980)
Small print – 32.48 : 2.93 (11.090)
H5: Supported for bilingual advertisements only.
H6: 2 pharmaceutical ads

June 2004
H1: Average number of people 1.33; average number of women .97; average number
of men .39
Hypothesis supported.
H2: Number of advertisements with people 26; number without 6
Hypothesis NOT supported.
H3: 4 ads with > 2 people; 3 were “all-races-together”
Hypothesis supported.
H4: Large print – 3.51 : .61 (5.754)
Medium print – 5.87 : .87 (6.747)
Small print – 29.39 : 1.55 (18.961)
H5: Supported for bilingual advertisements only.
H6: 0 pharmaceutical ads

July 2004
H1: Average number of people 1.65; average number of women .77; average number
of men .84
Hypothesis NOT supported.
H2: Number of advertisements with people 18; number without 12
Hypothesis NOT supported.
H3: 7 ads with > 2 people; 4 were “all-races-together”
Hypothesis supported.
H4: Large print – 2.83 : .61 (3.770)
Medium print – 6.42 : 1.19 (5.39)
Small print – 33.17 : 3.08 (10.769)
H5: Supported for bilingual advertisements only.
H6: 1 pharmaceutical advertisement

October 2004
H1: Average number of people 1.08; average number of women .67; average number
of men .42
Hypothesis supported.
H2: Number of advertisements with people 20; number without 15
Hypothesis NOT supported
H3: 2 ads with > 2 people; both were “all-races-together”
Hypothesis supported.
H4: Large print – 2.83 : .61 (1.361)
Medium print – 6.42 : 1.19 (5.394)
Small print – 33.17 : 3.08 (10.769)
H5: Supported for bilingual advertisements only.
H6: 1 pharmaceutical advertisement

OVERALL:
H1: Hypothesis supported with reservations.
H2: Hypothesis rejected.
H3: Hypothesis supported.
H4: Hypothesis rejected.
H5: Hypothesis supported.
H6: Hypothesis rejected.

Qualitative Analysis:

Throughout this study I was constantly questioning why certain words were repeatedly printed in English, and certainly the idea of English as a fad can be used as an explanation. Words like “new” and “cool” have begun to sneak into the Spanish language, much the way Latin music has infused American radio. Other words are written in English for a variety of reasons. Some advertisements have only English text, while others use English sparingly.

Another element in Spanish language advertising for a bilingual audience is the use of English for name maintenance. Ford, Clairol and other name brands remain the same, as names do not change from English to Spanish. Other brand names, however, like “Land Rover” and “Always” are translatable. Although the brand names are able to be translated, these company names remain in English.

Like “Always,” “State Farm” also keeps their name in English, but directly translates their “like a good neighbor” slogan into Spanish. Some companies, however, create entire advertising campaigns for the Hispanic market. Bounty, for example, has an advertisement on page 57 of February’s 2004 issue showing its ability to absorb grease from food. The food chosen – taquitos, a traditional Mexican snack made by rolling seasoned beef into corn tortillas and frying them until crispy. Had this advertisement been in another magazine, it may have been overlooked, but it was a carefully selected with a specific audience in mind. Disney’s advertisement in the same issue on page 54 shows two young boys, easily identifiable as Hispanic. This was not a coincidence, but again, a strategic decision to embrace the Latino community. Yet another example can be found on February’s page 41 in an advertisement from Dodge. Its background – thousands of drying chili peppers, with a Dodge Neon sportily displayed in the foreground.

While there are many examples of companies that create entire advertising campaigns for the Hispanic market, an even greater number directly translate print ads into Spanish, but do not re-photograph models or create Hispanic-friendly backgrounds. It is the directly translated advertisements that lead to a group of peculiar ads.

These peculiar and ironic examples come from a variety of companies advertising everything from cosmetics to cars. There are countless make-up companies advertising to the Hispanic audience using models with pale white complexions. The Got Milk? campaign does not even translate their own slogan, which one would assume is the point of the entire promotion. Perhaps most ironic is Jennifer Lopez, who touts herself as “Jenny from the block” in her #1 hit of the same name, the girl who will always remember her Puerto Rican roots. In a perfume advertisement for her scent “Glow,” she is shown with blonde hair, and none of the words in the entire advertisement are in Spanish, including “available at Fine Department Stores” (Feb, 13). In October’s issue, Perry Ellis fell into the same trap by proudly printing “available in fine department stores” (33).
Many conclusions can be drawn from examining these advertisements, but I would like to focus on American companies who have made a conscious effort to cater to the Hispanic market. Disney, for example, displays advertisements with Hispanic families enjoying the park (Feb, 54). WalMart also shifts its ads to meet the needs of the specific audience, showcasing the Rodriguez family in July’s 2004 edition of People En Espanol (11).

Limitations of this study and Ideas for further research:

While this study is a good stepping-off point, admittedly there are many steps to be taken to continue to follow up on the hypotheses of this study. One extraneous variable that came up is editor, as the editor for February’s issue is Angelo Figueroa, yet the other three issues are edited by Richard PÃ?©rez-Feria. Could this have played a role in which companies were recruited? Did advertising strategies shift during the transition? These questions can only be dealt with by examining more than just one year, but rather print advertising over time.

Another issue is the use of one specific magazine. While those dealing with minority images in print advertising often use more than one magazine, the scale of such a project would have been overwhelming for these purposes. Perhaps examining magazines such as Cristina La Revista, Cosmopolitan en Espanol, Vanidades Continental, or �¡Mira! Could also be examined to see if results remain constant.

The quantitative research aspect could be greatly improved with the use of a statistical program like SPSS. By gathering more data, such as children in advertising, and colors used, I would be able to check for further variables and draw more conclusions. Although I thought my hypothesis would all be supported, only three of six were upheld. At least after this basic and introductory study I would be able to better focus further research.

Works Cited

Colfax, J. David, and Susan Frankel Sternberg. “The Perpetuation of Racial Stereotypes:
Blacks in Mass Circulation Magazine Advertisements.” The Public Opinion Quarterly
36 (1972): 8 – 18.

Cox, Keith C. “Changes in Stereotyping of Negroes and Whites in Magazine
Advertisements.” The Public Opinion Quarterly 33 (1970): 603 – 606.

“Extra! Latinos Prefer English!” Hispanic. 17.6 (2004): 10 – 11.

Figueroa, Angelo. People En Espanol. February 2004.

Humphrey, Ronald, and Howard Schuman. “The Portrayal of Blacks in Magazine
Advertisements: 1950 – 1982.” The Public Opinion Quarterly 48 (1984): 551 – 563.

Martin, Elizabeth. “Mixing English in French Advertising.” World Englishes 21.3 (2002):
375 – 402.

“People En Espanol.” Amazon.com Magazine Information and Review. Available online at
.

P�©rez-Feria, Richard. People En Espanol. July 2004.

P�©rez-Feria, Richard. People En Espanol. June 2004.

P�©rez-Feria, Richard. People En Espanol. October 2004.

Wentz, Laurel. “Print Sees Hope in Hispanics.” Advertising Age. 75.18 (2004): 78 – 79.

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