# Handy Information for Around the Kitchen

There are many things one needs around the kitchen. Things like bread, butter, eggs, and the occasional radish. But what about things like measurement equivalents and substitutions to use in a pinch? Are you prepared? This is the information that can get you through that recipe with ease and grace.

Measures and Weights
dash/pinch = less than 1/8 of a teaspoon
3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon
2 tablespoons = 1/8 of a cup or 1 fluid oz.
4 tablespoons = Ã?Â¼ of a cup or 2 fluid oz.
5 1/3 tablespoons = 1/3 of a cup
8 tablespoons = Ã?Â½ of a cup or 4 fluid oz.
12 tablespoons = Ã?Â¾ of a cup or 6 fluid oz.
16 tablespoons = 1 cup or 8 fluid oz.
1 cup = 8 fluid oz.
2 cups = 1 pint or 16 fluid oz.
4 cups = 1 quart
2 pints = 1 quart or 32 fluid oz.
4 quarts = 1 gallon
8 quarts = 1 peck
4 pecks = 1 bushel
16 ounces = 1 pound
1 ounce = 28.35 grams
1 liter = 1.06 quarts

Key Ingredient Substitutions
1 teaspoon lemon juice = Ã?Â¼ teaspoon white vinegar
1 cup firmly packed brown sugar = 1 cup sugar +2 tablespoons molasses
1 teaspoon baking powder = Ã?Â½ teaspoon baking soda +1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar
1 cup whole milk = Ã?Â½ cup evaporated milk + Ã?Â½ cup water, or 1 cup nonfat milk+2 teaspoons butter
1 cup honey = 1 Ã?Â¼ cup sugar + Ã?Â¼ cup liquid, or 1 cup molasses
1 cup buttermilk = 1 tablespoon cider vinegar or lemon juice + enough milk to equal 1 cup
1 cup sour cream = 1 cup plain yogurt, or 1 cup evaporated milk +1 tablespoon vinegar, or 1 cup cottage cheese mixed in blender with 2 tablespoons milk and 1 tablespoon lemon juice
1 cup corn syrup = 1 cup sugar+1/4 cup liquid
1 cup half and half = 7/8 cup milk +tablespoons butter, or 1 cup evaporated milk
1 cup plain milk = 1 cup sour milk, 1 cup buttermilk
1 cup cake flour = 1 cup sifted all purpose flour minus 2 tablespoons
Ã?Â¼ cup dry bread crumbs = Ã?Â¼ cup cracker crumbs, 1 slice bread, cubed, or 2/3 cup quick cooking oats.
1 oz/1 square unsweetened chocolate = 2 tablespoons cocoa powder +1 tablespoon margarine
1 oz/1 square semisweet chocolate = 1 square unsweetened chocolate +1 tablespoon sugar, or 3 tablespoons semisweet chocolate pieces
Ã?Â½ cup semisweet chocolate pieces for melting = 3 oz/3 squares semisweet chocolate
1 tablespoon fresh herbs = 1 teaspoon same herb, dried, or Ã?Â¼ teaspoon ground herb
1 teaspoon dry mustard = 2 teaspoons prepared mustard
1 teaspoon pumpkin pie spice = Ã?Â½ teaspoon cinnamon, Ã?Â½ teaspoon ginger, 1/8 teaspoon ground allspice, and 1/8 teaspoon nutmeg
1 teaspoon poultry seasoning = Ã?Â¼ teaspoon thyme + Ã?Â¾ teaspoon sage
1 garlic clove, minced or pressed = 1/8 – Ã?Â¼ teaspoon instant minced garlic, or 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder
1 medium onion = 2 tablespoons instant chopped or minced onion or onion flakes, or 1 Ã?Â½ teaspoons onion powder
white wine = equal amount of apple juice or cider
1 cup chicken = 1 teaspoon instant bouillon or bouillon cube + 1 cup hot water
1 medium orange = Ã?Â¼ – 1/3 cup orange juice
1 tablespoon cornstarch = 2 tablespoons flour, or 1 1/3 tablespoons quick cooking tapioca
1 tablespoon tapioca = 1 Ã?Â½ tablespoons all purpose flour
1 tablespoon flour = 1 Ã?Â½ tablespoons all purpose flour
1 cup canned tomatoes = 1 1/3 cups fresh tomatoes simmered 10 minutes
1 cup tomato juice = Ã?Â½ cup tomato sauce + Ã?Â½ cup water
1 cup tomato sauce = 8 oz stewed tomatoes blended in blender, or 1 cup tomato puree, or Ã?Â¾ cup tomato paste + Ã?Â¼ cup water
Ã?Â½ cup ketchup or chili sauce = Ã?Â½ cup tomato sauce + 2 tablespoons sugar + 1 tablespoon vinegar
Ã?Â½ lb fresh mushrooms = 4 oz canned mushrooms