The government of China is odd in that its economic structure and politics conflict with one another. Still, China has been able to create a successful economy while undergoing political change. The period since 1977 has been known as the “Socialist Market Economy.” China is made up of 1.4 billion people. 68 percent of the population lives in rural areas and the other 32% live in urban areas. THe ethnicities are broken down into 92% Han and 8% minorities. The Chinese government is made up of the Communist Party which has great influence, thte Bureaucracy, and military.Ã?Â¯Ã?Â¿Ã?Â½
Chinese Politics have one central party which is the National Party Congress which is made up of 3,000 delegates and meets every 5 years. There are several comittees in China: The Central Committee, Standing Committee, Military Commission, Central Discipline Inspection Committee, and Poliburo. The Central Committee has 200-300 members, the Standing Committee has 5-6 mmbers and the Politiburo has 20-35 members.Ã?Â¯Ã?Â¿Ã?Â½
The communist party which has great influence in China has strong roots in all levels of the government including provinces, cities, counties, towns and villages. Party discipline is enforced through cadre membership which is the moving up in the party in rankÃ?Â¯Ã?Â¿Ã?Â½based on loyalty to the party, performance and patronage. The National Party Congress makes up the legislature and the Premier is the Chief Executive. There are several ministries who hold positions in the offices of foreign affaris, Finance, Planning, and Defense.Ã?Â¯Ã?Â¿Ã?Â½
There is a Judiciary in China which is called the Supreme People’s Court and it is located in Beijing. There is also a court system with several courts below it. There is a prosecutor for the government called the Supreme People’s Procuraturate. Law reform began in 1978 which was neccessary for China to integrate into a world economy. Criminal law in China has also been revised.Ã?Â¯Ã?Â¿Ã?Â½
The military in China is subordinate to the Commnunist Party. Members of the military hold high ranking positions in the government and serve on the Standing Committee, Central Committee, Politiburo. The Communist Party keeps the military in line through surveillance and discipline. The military has also supported and profited from the economic modernization of China.Ã?Â¯Ã?Â¿Ã?Â½
Elites and the people who hold the most power in China serve on the Standing committees and as Provincial First Secretaries. Other important and prestigious positions include commanders of the military divisions and high ranking bureaucrats. There has also been a shift in China to engineering as 18/24 of the members on the Politiburo are engineers.
Ballots in China are done by secret ballot at the township and local level but it is also partially controlled by the Communist Party. Since 1988 free elections have been held in villages but still with the control of the Communist Party. In 2007 provincial elections are scheduled.Ã?Â¯Ã?Â¿Ã?Â½
In 1989 the world andÃ?Â¯Ã?Â¿Ã?Â½ China was shook by theÃ?Â¯Ã?Â¿Ã?Â½student Tian An Men protests in which the army killed student protestors who demanded political change in addition to the economic change.Ã?Â¯Ã?Â¿Ã?Â½
The Chinese economy is booming and itÃ?Â¯Ã?Â¿Ã?Â½has the world’s highest growth rate. It is averaging 10% between 1979 and 1997 and about 8-9%Ã?Â¯Ã?Â¿Ã?Â½per year since 1997. By the year 2010 ChinaÃ?Â¯Ã?Â¿Ã?Â½is predicted to replaceÃ?Â¯Ã?Â¿Ã?Â½Japan as the world’s secong largest economy.Ã?Â¯Ã?Â¿Ã?Â½
Because of the huge population in China of 1.4 billion people, the Chinese government instituted a one child per family policy to stop the overpopulation. Ã?Â¯Ã?Â¿Ã?Â½In 1970 there was an average of 5.8 births and that number has dropped to 1.9 births per woman. This has led to a growth in population of only 1% compared to the 2.7% growth rate in 1970.
Finally, there is the social tensions that face peasants. Because of the modernization in economics, their income has dropped. Students are pro-modernization and the urban workers want safer and better working conditions in factories.