As postulated by Bohr, “an orbit is a definite circular path at a definite distance from the nucleus in which the electrons revolve round the nucleus”. Orbits are represented by the capital letters K, L, M, N…. etc. K is the first shell around the nucleus and can accommodate only two electrons, L can accommodate 8 electrons and so on. The electrons in a shell follow the octet rule, which means all the orbits except the K shell, should contain at least eight electrons for an atom to remain in neutral state.
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As postulated by the wave nature of an electron, “an orbital is a three-dimensional region around the nucleus within which the probability of finding an electron is maximum”. Orbitals are actually the sub shells around the nucleus and are categorized as s, p, d and f orbitals.
- s orbital – 2 electrons
- p orbital – 6 electrons
- d orbital – 10 electrons
- f orbital – 16 electrons
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