Use the Library
The first thing that you need to do is to make a list of resources that you wish to use. The best place to start is to look into a library and see what resources are available. You can read different books and acquire knowledge about the field. You can also watch videos on the subject and better understand how the whole process works. A librarian can certainly be helpful in this regard.
Learn General Geography
Your aim should first be to learn geography in general. Understand not only the map but the effects of various factors that are present in our environment and how geography impacts on them. This will give you an understanding of much of the affairs around the world and why some unusual approaches are taken based on the location of the given place.
Once you have some basics covered, look for more specific text. See how each of the factor in the environment affects others and how it is countered. You can start learning about various regions that interest you. In case you are getting placed in a different geographical location and will be required to make decisions keeping the local conditions in mind, this is something you should concentrate on.
Blend with Your Craft
Now that you have an idea, the next and most important aspect is to bring that knowledge to use. You will need to blend it with the craft that you must perform while you keep the local conditions in mind. Make sure that decisions are indeed geo-literate so that you do not make the wrong call according to the geography.