This is the most important thing, as many people only want to be heard and forget that the other person might have something to say too. When there is a serious problem or a discussion, people tend to keep on talking and think that they are right - this attitude will take you nowhere. Give your partner a chance to speak and express himself/herself. Pay attention when the other person is talking, and be a good listener.
Your partner cannot always read your mind; it is important to be honest and open with him/her. Unless you communicate what you are feeling, things will not work out. Many people have difficulty opening up but you need to remind yourself that your spouse is the closest person to you and you should express your feelings openly with him/her. Do not always pretend that you are fine - if you are hurt, show it; if you are happy, express it. If you are both open with each other, you will have a lot more to talk about.
Since you have been living together for some time, you will be aware of each other’s reactions and responses. Sometimes you have to read the signals and then initiate a conversation. If your partner doesn’t meet your eye, maybe he/she is ashamed or hiding something; gauge the situation, and plan the conversation accordingly. If he/she gets angry during the discussion, it means you should back off and bring up the subject later. Timings and reading signs is very important.
Arguments and heated discussions are bound to take place; what matters is how you deal with them. When such an argument is happening, keep in mind that you should respect the other person, and also try to focus on the matter at hand, instead of bringing up past events. If you bring in all the other issues, the fight will continue and it will make matters worse. Take a deep breath and suggest that you two take a break and talk tomorrow, if you are both very angry.