The first step towards identifying occult symbols is to do some research. There are a number of books which you may refer to for this purpose. Visit a nearby library and browse through a number of different books related to occult symbols.
In the books that you go through, you will have to look for powerful iconic shapes such as pyramids or triangles, pentacles and pentagrams, circles, ovals, crosses etc. Intersection of these iconic shapes makes an occult diagram more meaningful so closely observe the ways these shapes intersect.
To study occult diagrams at your leisure, you may want to take pictures of old architectures, public artwork and signs. The photographs will enable you to observe occult diagrams more thoroughly.
Occult diagrams used in numerous corporate logos and other objects are usually based on occult symbols used in divination by runes. Thus, studying runes would make it easier for you to identify occult symbols without involving extensive research work.
Apart from everyday objects, occult symbols are also used in art as well. Again, the best way to identify occult symbols used in artwork is to read a number of books on the particular subject. These books would be loaded with images that make use of occult symbols. Study as many images as you possibly can.
Visit a museum and study occult symbols used in artwork. With complete focus, you should be able to identify a number of occult symbols that were used by artists in their artwork.
There are a number of places where no one would expect to find occult symbols, such as religious buildings. However, upon close scrutiny, you may just come across religious works involving occult symbolism.