Glucose is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. It is one of the most common organic molecules and is the main source of energy for several living organisms.
It is a six-carbon molecule with many hydroxyl groups (OH) joint. Ringed pyranose structure is the most common but it is also found in five-ringed furanose form and linear string of carbons.
In the chemical structure of monosaccharide, hydroxyl group is attached with every carbon atoms except one. The carbon atom left alone is attached with another oxygen atom. This is the carbonyl group (CHO). Remember that the position of the carbonyl group reflects whether the carbohydrate is an aldehyde or a ketone.
Glucose found in nature
Glucose is found in the form of carbohydrates. You simply ingest carbohydrates and your liver breaks it down to glucose. This glucose is then used in your tissues, muscles, fat and brain.
The importance of glucose is not only providing energy to cells but it also provides structural assistance. Plants make glucose by combining carbon dioxide and water. It does this under the sunlight. Remember that the structural material of plant cells is cellulose which is made up from glucose.
A form of glucose known as dextrose is given to people who are either injured or sick. It is applied directly into the body by injecting. As a result it becomes a fast energy source for repairing tissues in the person’s body. It also helps in sustaining body tissues. Remember that cells can also avail monosaccharide in order to make other organic molecules.
There are two configurations of glucose. One is D-glucose and its mirror image configured glucose – L-glucose. D-glucose can be consumed by the human body whereas its mirror image cannot be utilized by our enzymes.