How do people get those beautiful, lush gardens? I used to think I would have to be a little old lady before I had enough time to spend in the garden maintaining it. Who else did I ever see with lush gardens not involving a professional landscaper other than the delightful elderly ladies in my neighborhood?
Then I discovered mulching. The age old technique, used effectively to improve gardens long before chemical techniques came into the picture.
There are several methods of mulching, and of course, gardening books and experts suggest a variety of options. The consistent theme, though is cultivating and enriching soil, creating a barrier, and mulching to an appropriate depth for your plants. This simple process of mulching can be successful ineither a vegetable garden, or a flower bed.
The Value of Mulching
Texas A&M reports that a long established horticultural practice,mulching, is beneficial because it prevents erosion, especially on sloping beds, or furrowed rows. In especially harsh or rainy climates, this is an issue. Look at the record landslides that have occured on the west coast this year – often in housing developments placed upon hills with little to anchor the soil. The same thing can happen in your garden simply from watering it without proper ‘armor” for your soil.
An organic or other porous mulch will allow moisture to get down into the soil and, even better, help the soil retain that precious moisture. This is especially important in arid climates, but also benefits those in damp climates as well. Either way, when the hot weather strikes, evaporation is prevented, and so are high water bills. A gardener doesn’t have to resort to native planting to save on water.
Perhaps one of the most important effect of mulching, however, is the effect upon soil temperature. Extreme soil temperatures tend to stress plants out, making them weak and vulnerable to disease and pests. Mulching provides reglation of soil temperature, keeping the soil temperature on a more even keel.
Of course, another benefit, and this is a valuable one to busy people, is the prevention of weeds mulching provides. Is there a gardener on this earth who doesn’t value that?
Last of all, mulching truly improves not only the quality of your garden, but the appearance as well. That’s what we are all striving for, after all, isn’t it?
It’s amazing what materials have been used for mulching. It’s important to know which materials will inhibit plant growth, and which will enhance it.
The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS – a part of the USDA) offers some suggestions. NRCS doesn’t come right out and say not to use inorganic sources of mulch such as plastics or ground cover cloths. However, the organization points out that inorganic mulches lack the soil improving properties of organic mulches. They also tend to be difficult to remove if you need to change them, or they no longer serve their purpose.
That being said, Organic mulches do improve the condition of the soil as they decompose. This keeps the soil loose allowing water to infiltrate the soil and stay there. The benefits to the plants including additional nutrients, aeration, and a place for roots to grow easily is nothing to sneeze at either. Your local earthworms will find this an inviting habitat, which is also of benefit to your plants and the soil they reside in.
Here are some suggested mulches.
Wood Chips, somewhat decomposed
Leaves, chopped and partially decomposed
Leaf Mold (not what it sound like)
Do not use old weeds, diseased plant parts, or plant matter that has been treated with herbicides or chemical fertilizers.
Now, there are some things you need to keep in mind before mulching anything. To start with, take the time to test your soil ph level, and mulch accordingly. For example, you don’t want to add an acidic mulch to already acidic soil unless you are growing rhododendrons or some other acid loving plant.
Be aware that some wood chip mulches actually inhibit the growth of some plants. You will want to research this prior to choosing your mulch. If it is suitable, then you may actually have a pretty good chance of finding this particular type of mulch for a low cost or even free. Tree maintenance businesses and city maintenance crews will sometimes be amenable to providing you truckloads of wood chips. The NRCS, and Master Gardeners everywhere will recommend mulching the woodchips to some degree prior to use.
Leaf mold is a type of chopped, partially composted leaf matter. It provides an excellent soil amendment, and works well as a mulch.
Grass clips require a bit more attention. Feel free to spread grass clippings on your garden lightly. Thick layers of this particular mulch will become compacted and matted , as well as slimy and rather smelly as they rot. Adding additional thin layers as you mow your lawn from week to week is supposed to help this matter, but I have to tell you that my personal experience does not back this up. If you are bent on using grass clippings in this manner, you will want to keep it to areas where you do not have to walk. (Personally, I prefer to throw them into the compost pile along with a balance of other matter.)
Thick layers of black and white, not glossy newspapers are an excellent mulch! You will want to anchor this down with something such as bark mulch, or weed-detering decorative mulch. Newspapers eventually break down, adding to the quality of the soil It is easy to cut a slit in newspaper to put in a new plant. Of course, if you or a neighbor get a daily newspaper, there will be a ready supply for your use.
I saved the best for last. Composted organic material is simply the best thing you can use to mulch your soil The matter has already broken down, releasing nutrients and other added benefits into the soil. I consider cover crops, also known as “green manure” to fit into this category. Cover crops prevent weed from moving in over the winter, and are turned back into the soil in the spring. The nutritional value to your plants is, well, invaluable.
The Process of Mulching
Mulching only works if you procede correctly in the first place. Begin by cultivating the soil and getting every weed out that you can. Watch for runners of grass roots, get them out. In some gardens, this can be a real chore, but it is worth it in the long haul. This works best if you remove weeds before they become active for the gardening season.
When applying your chosen mulch, it is recommended that the mulch be kept a few inches out from the plant stem. There are many reasons for this including but not limited to the need for air circulation, and disease control. Certain mulches, such as composted manure in to strong a dose may even “burn” the plant.
Also, consider the thickness of the mulch you are applying. Bark mulch and wood chips should be applied at a depth of 2-4 inches. These will settle, so take that into consideration.
Grass clips should be applied at 2-3 inches (a little at a time….remember the information I gave you earlier!) Newspaper should be laid in sheets of 1/4 inch, while Compost and leaves can be applied at a liberal 3-4 inches.
An Excellent Recipe for Mulching
If you have a good sized garden, do this in sections for best results.
Cultivate the soil by double-digging, or using a cultivator. (In my case, this entailed removing old worn out cover cloth with weeds sprouting through it, and cultivating the compacted soil beneath. What a project!) Be thorough about getting any weeds out of the soil, short of using herbicides. Just plain pulling or digging them out works best. Wait a few days, and pull up any weeds that begin to show their faces. Now you should be ready to procede.
Supplement your soil with an appropriate amendment. This is the time to check the ph level before you add anything. Once you have decided upon a mulch, work it into the cultivated soil. My personal preference is for composted material or leaf mold.
Lay on the newspaper. Remember, 1/4 inch thick. You’ll get the hang of it. Again, remember to leave a 1-2 inch diameter around the plant bases. Weeds just don’t penetrate the newspaper from underneath. You won’t see a mess of grass or wild morning glory runners shooting up. Especially if you have cleaned them out to begin with.
Cover the newspaper with the mulch of your choice. I have had the best luck with wood chips or bark dust. It is attractive, and if layered properly, will not show the newspaper underneath. Again, if you have made a valiant effort at weed removal prior to beginning this process, you won’t find weed seeds sprouting in your upper level of mulch.
In the past I have been able to keep a garden weed free and very lush for two years using this method. My water bill showed a measurable drop and I spent much less time weeding the garden, and more time enjoying it. I do not know if these are typical results, but if I can do it, anyone can!
You will get incredible results in your garden if you mulch. Your plants will thank you, and you will thank yourself when you are sitting outside on the garden bench enjoying a glass of iced tea and a garden magazine rather than spending your day weeding.