First you need to know where the champagne is from. Champagne is said to be the most popular wine globally. It was originated in France in the region with the same name, it is the only place where the most authentic champagne is made. This place developed the method to make sparkling wine which is known as Methode Traditionelle or Methode Champenoise. When you buy a champagne bottle, look for one of the two names on the sticker. Champagne is a mixture of three grapes: pinot noir, chardonnay and pinot meunier. It is made in such a way that the colour of the red grapes doesn’t come in the juice.
The technique of identifying the wine made with Methode Traditionelle is: pour some champagne into a flute, there will be fine foam on top and very small bubbles which will stay on top for some time. This is because of the two fermentation's involved in the process. The wine will have biscuit or a yeasty characteristic once it is tasted. It will be because of the contact with yeast.
The charmat method is another way to make sparkling wine. This is used to make Prosecco wine. The clue which tells that it is a sparkling wine is that once it is poured, bubbles will form but they will be of bigger size. The mousse on top will disappear quickly. When you taste the wine it should have a simple fruity flavour. It differs from champagne because the production method is different.
Cava is another sparkling wine from Catalonia, Spain. As it is made from the same method as the champagne, it will have small bubbles as well. Upon tasting it will have a lighter taste but there will be slight taste of the yeast. It is not as intense as the taste of champagne because different grapes are used in it.